The Sochi summit that took place at the end of January was designed to underline the successful achievements of Russia's involvement in Syria and to consolidate the partnership among Russia, Turkey and Iran. However, the summit revealed the limitations of Russia's Syria policy instead of Moscow's growing influence across the Middle East.
The Russian propaganda machine painted a rosy picture by emphasizing that more than 1,500 Syrians participated in the summit to rebuild their country. However, these efforts couldn't conceal that the Syrian Kurds, outraged by Turkey's Afrin operation, boycotted the meeting.
Not only was the Syrian Kurdish Democratic Union Party (PYD) absent from Sochi, but also absent was its main rival, the Kurdish National Council -- a pro-Massoud Barzani alliance recognized by Turkey. Hamid Darwish, a historic figure of the Syrian Kurds, also declined to go to Sochi because of Turkey's military operation. More interestingly, Abdel Basset Sieda, the former chairman of the Syrian National Council that Turkey formed and supported, not only refused to go to Sochi but also resigned from the Turkey-backed Syrian group.
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